Republic of TurkeyTurkey
Official name: Republic of Turkey 
Head of State: President H.E. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 
National Day: 29th of October 
Capital: Ankara 
Area: 774,815 sq. km 
Land boundaries: 2,875 km 
Border countries: Georgia 276 km, Armenia 325 km, Azerbaijan       18 km, Bulgaria 269 km,            Greece 203 km, Iran 529 km, Iraq 378 km, Syria 877 km
Coast line: 8,333 km (including islands)  
Climate: Turkey is in the temperate zone and its topography is characterized by mountain ranges that run parallel to its sea coast. Thus the climate differs from region to region. Coastal areas enjoy a milder climate; the inland Anatolian plateau experiences extremes of hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall.
Natural resources: Hard coal, lignite, crude petroleum, iron, chrome, copper, boron minerals, magnasite, lead-zinc 
Land use: Arable land:39.00%
  Permanent crops: 4%
  Meadows and pastures: 20% *
  Forest and woodland: 33%
  Other: 4% *
  Irrigated land: 3,674,000 hectares ( * - Data are the results of General Agriculture Census of 1991. The other data refer to current agricultural statistics.)
    
    
Agricultural products: Grain (wheat and barley), dry beans, sugar beet, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, vegetables, fruits (nuts, citrus, grapes, apples, olives) and tea 
Population: 75.176 million (2012) 
Population growth rate: 1.28 % (2012) 
Religions: Muslim 
Languages: Turkish  
Literacy Rate  Total95.1 % (2011)
    
    
Currency :  Turkish Lira  
Exchange rate (TRL/US$):  1.79  TRY/US$ Annual Average (2012) 
GDP: 786293 Million US$ (2012) 
GDP per capita : 10504 US$ (2012) 
GDP Growth rate: 2.2 % (2012) 
Inflation rate : 8.9 % (2012) 
Unemployment rate: 9.21 % (2012) 
Total Imports: 236545 million US $ (2012) 
Total Exports: 152489 million US $ (2012) 
Foreign Direct Investment: 8481 million US $ (2012) 
Total External Debt : 336863 million US $ (2012) 
Industries: Food manufacturing, grain mill products, beverage industries, tobacco, textile, paper, chemical industries, fertilizers, petroleum products, rubber products, tyre and tube industries, glass products, cement, iron and steel, metal products, manufacture of machinery (transport equipment, shipbuilding, railroad equipment, motor vehicles, aircraft manufacture). 
Electricity (2011): Production: 229.4 billion kWh 
    
    
Transportation (2011): Railways:9.642 km
  Highways:380,289 km
  Important Ports: Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Izmit, Mersin, Samsun, Trabzon 
  Merchant marine (1997): 5,866 ships
    
    

 

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